OPEN ACCESSReview Article

The success of stem cell transplantations and the potential post-transplantation complications may be dependent, among other factors, on the capacity of the recipient and the transplanted cells to repair DNA damage

Lewis Reynolds
CMCBR, School of Science Engineering and Technology, Abertay University, Dundee, Scotland, UK

Abstract

Cell therapy is presently a treatment of choice for many types of haematological and metabolic disease in man and is likely to become a therapeutic option for other severe human diseases and conditions in the near future. The success of cell transplantations depends on a variety of factors, including the degree of HLA match between the donor and the recipient, the infectious burden of the graft, the cell dose, the age and general state of the recipient and other yet incompletely characterised characteristics of the donor and the recipient. It is likely that the individual capacity for identification and repair of DNA damage and maintenance of genomic integrity may account at least partly for these elusive factors that modulate the outcomes of transplantations with regard to success rates and occurrence of short-term and long-term post-transplantation complications. This paper outlines the role of individual repair capacity of donor and recipient in cell transplantations, summarises the little knowledge already accumulated in the field and analyses the known major issues of the use of different types of stem cells with regard to their capacity to maintain the integrity of their genome and, respectively, to renew their own population, differentiate into various cell types and, in some cases, succumb to carcinogenic transformation. Analysis of the individual repair capacity may become a useful tool in the assessment of the suitability of a batch of freshly collected stem cells or an in vitro propagated cell line for potential clinical applications.

Citation: Reynolds L. The success of stem cell transplantations and the potential post-transplantation complications may be dependent, among other factors, on the capacity of the recipient and the transplanted cells to repair DNA damage. Biodiscovery 2016; 19: 1; DOI: 10.7750/BioDiscovery.2016.19.1

Copyright: © 2016 Reynolds. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, provided the original authors and source are credited.

Received: 24 February 2016; Accepted: 28 March 2016; Available online /Published: 29 March 2016

Keywords: stem cells, DNA damage, individual repair capacity.

Abbreviations: BER - base excision repair, CMV - cytomegalovirus, DCB - double-strand breaks, DCL - donor cell leukemia, DMSO - dimethyl sulfoxide; EBV - Epstein-Barr virus, ESC - embryonic stem cells, GVHD - grade graft-versus-host disease, HIV - human immunodeficiency virus, iPSC - induced pluripotent stem cells, IRC - individual repair capacity, MDS - myelodysplastic syndrome, MSC - mesenchymal stem cells, NER - nucleotide excision repair, NHEJ - nonhomologous end joining, TERT- telomerase reverse transcriptas.

Corresponding Author: Lewis Reynolds, E-mail: 1201723@live.abertay.ac.uk.

Conflict of Interests: No potential conflict of interest was disclosed by the author.

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